Fine Motor Skills in Preschoolers

There is so much more to preparing your preschooler than numbers and ABC’s.  One of the most important skills your preschooler needs are adequate fine motor skills.  Fine motor skills involve movement of the smaller muscle groups in your child’s hands, fingers, and wrists. With the advent of screens, preschoolers are falling behind in fine motor skills as their hands become “paddle fingers” for swiping screens.  There are several areas in fine motor skills that need to be developed:

  •  The palm of the hand.  This skill allows your child’s palms to curl inward.  Strong palmar skills coordinate the movement of your child’s fingers that are needed for writing, unbuttoning clothes and gripping
  •  The wrist must be stable to move the fingers with strength and control
  •  The side of the hand must be developed to use the thumb, index finger and other fingers for grasping and holding tasks.
  •  As the hand muscles develop a preschooler must be able to perform small movements with the hand, where the tip of the thumb, index finger and middle finger touch
  •  A preschooler must be able to coordinate both hands at the same time

By the age of four your child should be able to:

  •  Turn a doorknob
  •   Wash hands
  •   Use a spoon and fork correctly
  •   Zip and unzip clothes
  •   Unbutton and button clothes
  •   Place and remove lids from canisters
  •   Use scissors to cut paper
  •   Trace shapes on paper

So if you have determined that your child might be behind in one or more fine motor skills, there are many activities that you can do at home in order to have your child ready for kindergarten.  Here are some ideas:

  •   Your child should be able to dress themselves by the age of three.  I know that time is your enemy as you struggle to get to work on time. It’s just too easy to quickly do it for them.    However, if your children can’t dress themselves at three, at what point/age are they going to do this?  You need to allow time for your child to perform these tasks at drop off and      pick up time.  Your child will develop hand strength, increase eye-hand coordination and balance.  Yes it can be frustrating and yes your child may want to use this time to drag out   the “goodbye” part of their day just for extra time with you.  But it is very important for your child to develop these fine and gross motor skills.
  •   Get puzzles that are simple at first and increase difficulty as your child perfects their fine motor skills.  Make it a family activitiy
  •    Play board games that involve rolling dice.  Use a cheap “dollar store” small lipped tray to corral the enthusiastic rolling.  Glue a felt square in the bottom of the tray which will also    help with runaway dice.
  •    Let your children set the table and pour their own drinks.  Ditch the “sippy cups”.  Your children will develop better eye hand coordination without lids.  Yes, it’s messy and                  tiresome, but your children need this skill.  Enlist their help with cleanup (it helps strengthen their midline skills as they wipe up using movements that coordinate their hands and   strengthen their shoulders)
  •   Make cookies that require rolling and squeezing.  Don’t want to bake?  Make  playdough.  Get them busy squeezing and rolling.
  •   Place rubber bands around cans of different sizes.  This helps strengthen the palm as well as pincer grasp.
  •   Place objects in a container and use tweezers* to remove them.  Cotton balls or craft balls are great to start with.
  •   Give your child a big piece of bubble wrap to pop bubbles.  Then increase difficulty and pop bubbles with a pair of  large size tweezers. *You can buy large size tweezers online.
  •   Allow your child to climb and hang from “monkey bars” unaided.  Stand back.  Allow your children to test their own limits (within reason).  Hanging from monkey bars strengthens   those little hands.
  •   Reading books and turning pages strengthens the pincer grasp and should not be only a bedtime activity.  Try taking books to entertain rather than a screen to appointments.

Preschools are an excellent resource if your children are not developing adequate fine and gross motor skills.  There is government funding available for children enrolled in a preschool program that have mild to moderate delays in development.

 

 

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